Azerbaijan Population: 9,590,159

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 History
Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous region within Soviet Azerbaijan after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the status of the territory. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. The OSCE Minsk Group, co-chaired by the United States, France, and Russia, is the framework established to mediate a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Corruption in the country is widespread, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced and infrastructure investment has increased substantially in recent years due to revenue from oil and gas production, reforms have not adequately addressed weaknesses in most government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors. In January 2012, Azerbaijan assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.

 Geography
Both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E
Area: total: 86,600 sq km
land: 82,629 sq km
water: 3,971 sq km

note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Maine
Land Boundaries: total: 2,013 km
border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: dry, semiarid steppe
Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
Land use: arable land: 21.78%
permanent crops: 2.62%
other: 75.6% (2011)
Irrigated land: 14,250 sq km (2010)
Natural hazards: droughts
Current Environment Issues: local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani
Ethnic groups: Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9% (1999 census) note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region
Languages: Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 90.3%, Lezgi 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified 1% (1999 census)
Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)

note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Population: 9,590,159 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.6% (male 1,164,189/female 1,006,483)
15-24 years: 18.3% (male 905,277/female 849,642)
25-54 years: 44.9% (male 2,092,945/female 2,209,623)
55-64 years: 7.9% (male 350,068/female 410,765)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 229,244/female 371,923) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 38.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 30.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.8 %
potential support ratio: 12.9 (2013)
Median age: total: 29.8 years
male: 28.2 years
female: 31.6 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.01% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 17.17 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 7.11 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 53.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.64% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BAKU (capital) 2.123 million (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.13 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 24.4 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 43 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 27.69 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 28.46 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.61 years
male: 68.65 years
female: 74.97 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 51.1% (2006)
Health expenditures: 5.9% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 3.79 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 7.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 80% of population

unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 20% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 86% of population
rural: 78% of population
total: 82% of population

unimproved:
urban: 14% of population
rural: 22% of population
total: 18% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,600 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 23.8% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 8.4% (2006)
Education expenditures: 2.8% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2010 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 14.7%
male: 14.2%
female: 15.2% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: Azarbaycan
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular); rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax
Independence: 30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
National holiday: Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, 28 May (1918)
Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995; modified by referendum 24 August 2002
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 15 October 2008 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 89%, Igbal AGAZADE 2.9%, other 8.1%

note: several political parties boycotted the election due to perceived unfair conditions; OSCE observers concluded that the election did not meet international standards
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 7 November 2010 (next to be held in November 2015)

election results: percent of vote by party - YAP 45.8%, CSP 1.6%, Motherland 1.4%, independents 48.2%, other 3.1%; seats by party - YAP 71, CSP 3, Motherland 2, Democratic Reforms 1, Great Creation 1, Hope Party 1, Social Welfare 1, Civil Unity 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, Justice 1, independents 42
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairman, and at least 24 judges in plenum sessions); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts;
Political parties and leaders: Azerbaijan Democratic Party or ADP [Sardar JALALOGLU] Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI] Civil Unity Party [Sabir HACIYEV] Classic People's Front of Azerbaijan [Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU] Democratic Reforms Party or PDR [Asim MOLLAZADE] Great Creation Party [Fazil Gazanfaroglu MUSTAFAYEV] Hope (Umid) Party [Iqbal AGAZADE] Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAYILOV] Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA, Avaz TEMIRKHAN] Motherland Party [Fazail AGAMALI] Musavat (Equality) [Isa GAMBAR, chairman] Open Society Party [Sulhaddin AKBAR, Rasul GULIYEV (in exile in the US)] Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV (in exile)] Social Welfare Party [Hussein KAZIMLI] United Popular Azerbaijan Front Party or AXCP [Ali KARIMLI] Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV] Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV] note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: Azerbaijan Public Forum [Eldar NAMAZOV] Karabakh Liberation Organization Forum of Intelligentsia [Rustam IBRAHIMBEYOV] Public Chamber Republican Alternative (REAL) [Ilgar MAMMADOV] NIDA Youth Movement [Turgut GAMBAR, Zaur GURBANLI] Positive Change Youth Movement [Bakhtiyar HAJIYEV] Ireli Youth Movement [Rauf MERDIYEV] Ol! Youth Movement [Vugar SALAMLI]
International organization participation: ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): flames of fire
National anthem: name: "Azerbaijan Marsi" (March of Azerbaijan)
lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV

note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, "Azerbaijan Marsi" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911 Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard L. MORNINGSTAR
embassy: 83 Azadlig Prospecti, Baku AZ1007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone: [994] (12) 4980-335 through 337
FAX: [994] (12) 4656-671
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 Economy
Azerbaijan's high economic growth during 2006-10 was attributable to large and growing oil and gas exports, but some non-export sectors also featured double-digit growth, including construction, banking, and real estate. In 2012, economic growth picked up to 3.8%. Continued production declines in the oil sector were offset by strong growth in the non-oil sector. However, the non-oil sector growth may be driven primarily by government investment, which may not be sustainable if oil production continues to decline. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The eventual completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another, albeit, smaller source of revenue from gas exports. Azerbaijan has made only limited progress on instituting market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance, while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to negotiate export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to use its energy wealth to promote growth and spur employment in non-energy sectors of the economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $98.36 billion (2012 est.) $96.28 billion (2011 est.) $96.19 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $68.8 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.2% (2012 est.) 0.1% (2011 est.) 5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $10,700 (2012 est.) $10,600 (2011 est.) $10,700 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 41.5% of GDP (2012 est.) 45.1% of GDP (2011 est.) 46.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 39.6%
government consumption: 10.3%
investment in fixed capital: 22.5%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 50.9%
imports of goods and services: -23.5% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 39.6%
government consumption: 10.3%
investment in fixed capital: 22.5%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 50.9%
imports of goods and services: -23.5% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Industrial production growth rate: -2.3% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 6.206 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 38.3%
industry: 12.1%
services: 49.6% (2008)
Unemployment rate: 1% (2012 est.) 6% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 11% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.7 (2008) 36.5 (2001)
Budget: revenues: $22 billion
expenditures: $21.77 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 32% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 5.9% of GDP (2012 est.) 7.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (2012 est.) 8.1% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $12.3 billion (2012 est.) $17.15 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $30.96 billion (2012 est.) $34.49 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs
Exports - partners: Italy 25.9%, France 7.7%, India 6.7%, Indonesia 6.6%, Germany 5.6%, Israel 5.1% (2012)
Imports: $10.06 billion (2012 est.) $10.17 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Imports - partners: Turkey 18.6%, Russia 14.3%, China 7.8%, Germany 7.2%, UK 7.1%, US 5.1%, Ukraine 5% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $11.28 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $10.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $7.608 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $7.492 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $11.85 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $10.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $6.923 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $6.323 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar - 0.7857 (2012 est.) 0.7897 (2011 est.) 0.8027 (2010 est.) 0.8038 (2009) 0.8219 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 20 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 73
Electricity - consumption: 13.48 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 380 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 110 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 5.798 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 82.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 17.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 987,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 821,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 7 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 161,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 168,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 63,950 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,426 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 16.68 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 9.921 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 6.755 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 849.5 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 35.12 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 1.684 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 64
Cellular Phones in use: 10.12 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: requires considerable expansion and modernization; fixed-line telephone and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market with four providers in 2009

domestic: teledensity of 17 fixed lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased and now exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhichevan)

international: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2011)
Broadcast media: 3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; local relays of several international broadcasters had been available until late 2008 when their broadcasts were banned from FM frequencies (2010)
Internet country code: .az
Internet hosts: 46,856 (2012)
Internet users: 2.42 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 37 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 108
Airports (paved runways): total 30
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 7

under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Pipelines: condensate 89 km; gas 3,890 km; oil 2,446 km (2013)
Railways: total 2,918 km
broad gauge: 2,918 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2009)
Roadways: total 52,942 km
paved: 26,789 km
unpaved: 26,153 km (2006)
Merchant marine: total 90

by type: cargo 27, chemical tanker 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 47, roll on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 2

foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)

registered in other countries: 2 (Malta 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Baku (Baki) located on the Caspian Sea
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 Military
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air, and Air Defense Forces (2010)
Military service age and obligation: men between 18 and 35 are liable for military service; length of service is 18 months and 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,354,249
females age 16-49: 2,334,632 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,773,993
females age 16-49: 1,964,012 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 76,923
female: 71,024 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 600,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2013)
stateless persons: 3,585 (2012)
Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe
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