Argentina Population: 42,610,981

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 History
In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, with Italy and Spain providing the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents. In January 2013, Argentina assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.

 Geography
Second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere
Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W
Area: total: 2,780,400 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 43,710 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Land Boundaries: total: 9,861 km
border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,261 km, Chile 5,308 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 580 km
Coastline: 4,989 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz)
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza; highest point in South America)
Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium
Land use: arable land: 13.68%
permanent crops: 0.36%
other: 85.96% (2011)
Irrigated land: 15,500 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (elev. 2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchon-Peteroa, San Jose, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma
Current Environment Issues: environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine
Ethnic groups: white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%
Languages: Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French, indigenous (Mapudungun, Quechua)
Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
Population: 42,610,981 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.1% (male 5,468,773/female 5,217,256)
15-24 years: 15.8% (male 3,436,816/female 3,296,788)
25-54 years: 38.8% (male 8,238,184/female 8,290,649)
55-64 years: 9.1% (male 1,871,644/female 1,990,790)
65 years and over: 11.3% (male 1,987,344/female 2,812,737) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 54.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 37.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 16.9 %
potential support ratio: 5.9 (2013)
Median age: total: 31 years
male: 29.9 years
female: 32.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.98% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 17.12 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 7.35 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 92% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BUENOS AIRES (capital) 13.528 million; Cordoba 1.493 million; Rosario 1.231 million; Mendoza 917,000; San Miguel de Tucuman 831,000 (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 77 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 10.24 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.45 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.32 years
male: 74.09 years
female: 80.73 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.27 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 78.9% (2004/05)
Health expenditures: 8.1% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 3.16 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
Hospital bed density: 4.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 80% of population
total: 97% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 20% of population
total: 3% of population (2008 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 92% of population
rural: 77% of population
total: 91% of population

unimproved:
urban: 8% of population
rural: 23% of population
total: 9% of population (2000 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 110,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,900 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 29.7% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2.3% (2005)
Education expenditures: 5.8% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 97.9%
male: 97.8%
female: 97.9% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 18 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 18.7%
male: 16.5%
female: 22.2% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Buenos Aires
geographic coordinates: 34 35 S, 58 40 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2013
Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city*; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires*, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego), Tucuman

note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)
National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
Constitution: 1 May 1853; amended many times starting in 1860
Legal system: civil law system based on West European legal systems; note - efforts at civil code reform begun in the mid-1980s has stagnated
Suffrage: 18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-17 years of age - optional
Executive branch: chief of state: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Amado BOUDOU (since 10 December 2011); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Amado BOUDOU (since 10 December 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 October 2011 (next election to be held in October 2015)

election results: Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER reelected president; percent of vote - Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER 54%, Hermes BINNER 16.9%, Ricardo ALFONSIN 11.1%, Alberto Rodriguez SAA 8%, Eduardo DUHALDE 5.9%, other 4.1%
Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members elected every two years to serve six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 23 October 2011 (next to be held on 27 October 2013); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 23 October 2011 (next to be held on 27 October 2013)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 38, UCR 17, PJ Disidente 10, FAP 4, other 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 134, UCR 41, PJ Disidente 28, FAP 22, PRO 11, CC 7, other 14; note - as of 1 January 2013, the composition of the entire legislature is as follows: Senate - seats by bloc or party - FpV 32, UCR 14, PJ Disidente 9, minor parties allied with the FpV 6, FAP 4, other 7; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 116, UCR 40, PJ Disidente 22, FAP 22, minor parties allied with the FpV 20, PRO 11, CC 6, other 20
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 5 judges) note - Argentina has a system of federal and provincial courts judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and approved by the Senate; judges serve for life

subordinate courts: federal level appellate, district, and territorial courts; provincial level supreme, appellate, and first instance courts
Political parties and leaders: Broad Progressive Front or FAP [Hermes BINNER] Civic Coalition or CC (a broad coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa CARRIO) Dissident Peronists (PJ Disidente) or Federal Peronism (a sector of the Justicialist Party opposed to the Kirchners) Front for Victory or FpV (a broad coalition, including elements of the PJ, UCR, and numerous provincial parties) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER] Peronist (or Justicialist) Party or PJ [vacant] Radical Civic Union or UCR [Mario BARLETTA] Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI] Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI] numerous provincial parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA) Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association) Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association) Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association) Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a union for employed and unemployed workers) General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization) Roman Catholic Church White and Blue CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation) other: business organizations, Peronist-dominated labor movement, Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government), students
International organization participation: AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol)
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional Argentino" (Argentine National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA

note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cecilia NAHON
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Vilma MARTINEZ
embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
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 Economy
Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. A severe depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and an unprecedented bank run culminated in 2001 in the most serious economic, social, and political crisis in the country's turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default - at the time the largest ever - on the government's foreign debt in December of that year, and abruptly resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor, Eduardo DUHALDE, announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar in early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year, with real GDP 18% smaller than in 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines under the poverty line. Real GDP rebounded to grow by an average 8.5% annually over the subsequent six years, taking advantage of previously idled industrial capacity and labor, an audacious debt restructuring and reduced debt burden, excellent international financial conditions, and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation also increased, however, during the administration of President Nestor KIRCHNER, which responded with price restraints on businesses, as well as export taxes and restraints, and beginning in 2007, with understating inflation data. Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as President in late 2007, and the rapid economic growth of previous years began to slow sharply the following year as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. The economy in 2010 rebounded strongly from the 2009 recession, but has slowed since late 2011 even as the government continued to rely on expansionary fiscal and monetary policies, which have kept inflation in the double digits. The government expanded state intervention in the economy throughout 2012. In May the Congress approved the nationalization of the oil company YPF from Spain's Repsol. The government expanded formal and informal measures to restrict imports during the year, including a requirement for pre-registration and pre-approval of all imports. In July the government also further tightened currency controls in an effort to bolster foreign reserves and stem capital flight.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $755.3 billion (2012 est.) $741.3 billion (2011 est.) $680.9 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $475 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.9% (2012 est.) 8.9% (2011 est.) 9.2% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $18,400 (2012 est.) $18,300 (2011 est.) $17,000 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 24.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 25.8% of GDP (2011 est.) 24.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 57.1%
government consumption: 16.6%
investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
investment in inventories: 2.2%
exports of goods and services: 19.7%
imports of goods and services: -17.4% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 57.1%
government consumption: 16.6%
investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
investment in inventories: 2.2%
exports of goods and services: 19.7%
imports of goods and services: -17.4% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Industrial production growth rate: -0.4% note: based on private estimates (2012 est.)
Labor force: 17.05 million note: urban areas only (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 5%
industry: 23%
services: 72% (2009 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.2% (2012 est.) 7.2% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 30%

note: data are based on private estimates (2010)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 32.3% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.8 (2009)
Budget: revenues: $121.3 billion
expenditures: $133.6 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 25.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 43.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 41.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25.3% (2012 est.) 24.4% (2011 est.) note: data are derived from private estimates
Current account balance: $1.433 billion (2012 est.) -$6 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $81.21 billion (2012 est.) $83.95 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
Exports - partners: Brazil 19.7%, China 7.2%, Chile 5.8%, US 5% (2012)
Imports: $65.56 billion (2012 est.) $70.74 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
Imports - partners: Brazil 26.9%, US 15.4%, China 11.8%, Germany 4.5% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $43.25 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $46.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $141.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $140.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $107.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $94.86 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $32.95 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $31.86 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $43.58 billion (31 December 2011) $63.91 billion (31 December 2010) $48.93 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar - 4.5369 (2012 est.) 4.1101 (2011 est.) 3.8963 (2010 est.) 3.7101 (2009) 3.1636 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 116 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 32
Electricity - consumption: 104.2 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.701 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 10.3 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 32.07 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 65.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 3.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 28.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 734,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 93,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 2.82 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 604,200 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 678,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 66,700 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 37,260 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 40.1 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 43.29 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 420 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 3.61 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 378.8 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 169.8 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 10.14 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 22
Cellular Phones in use: 55 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: in 1998 Argentina opened its telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving

domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; fixed-line teledensity is increasing gradually and mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; broadband Internet services are gaining ground

international: country code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2011)
Broadcast media: government owns a TV station and a radio network; more than 2 dozen TV stations and hundreds of privately owned radio stations; high rate of cable TV subscription usage (2007)
Internet country code: .ar
Internet hosts: 11.232 million (2012)
Internet users: 13.694 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1,138 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 6
Airports (paved runways): total 161
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 977
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
914 to 1,523 m: 484
under 914 m: 448 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 29,930 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 6,248 km; refined products 3,631 km (2013)
Railways: total 36,966 km
broad gauge: 26,475 km 1.676-m gauge (94 km electrified) standard gauge: 2,780 km 1.435-m gauge (42 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 7,711 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 231,374 km
paved: 69,412 km (includes 734 km of expressways)
unpaved: 161,962 km (2004)
Waterways: 11,000 km (2012)
Merchant marine: total 36

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 5, chemical tanker 6, container 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4

foreign-owned: 14 (Brazil 1, Chile 6, Spain 3, Taiwan 2, UK 2)

registered in other countries: 15 (Liberia 1, Panama 5, Paraguay 5, Uruguay 1, unknown 3) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Ushuaia
river port(s): Arroyo Seco, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin (Parana)
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 Military
The Argentine military is a well-organized force constrained by the country's prolonged economic hardship; the country has recently experienced a strong recovery, and the military is implementing a modernization plan aimed at making the ground forces lighter and more responsive (2008)
Military branches: Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental consent); no conscription; if the number of volunteers fails to meet the quota of recruits for a particular year, Congress can authorize the conscription of citizens turning 18 that year for a period not exceeding one year (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 10,038,967
females age 16-49: 9,959,134 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 8,458,362
females age 16-49: 8,414,460 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 339,503
female: 323,170 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.5% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur); contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia
Illicit drugs: a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs (2008)
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