Angola Population: 20,172,332

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 History
Angola is still rebuilding its country since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS pushed through a new constitution in 2010 and elections held in 2012 saw him installed as president. Angola assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2015-16 term.

 Geography
The province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E
Area: total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 5,369 km border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1,427 km, Zambia 1,065 km
Coastline: 1,600 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use: agricultural land: 47.3% arable land 3.8%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 43.3% forest: 46.8%
other: 5.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 860 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Current Environment Issues: overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Languages: Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6% note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
Population: 20,172,332 note: results from Angola's 2014 national census estimate the country's population to be 25.8 million (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.72% (male 4,394,206/female 4,223,246)
15-24 years: 20.72% (male 2,127,140/female 2,053,363)
25-54 years: 29.6% (male 3,013,561/female 2,956,547)
55-64 years: 3.97% (male 388,314/female 413,347)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 278,853/female 323,755) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 99.9%
youth dependency ratio: 95.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6%
potential support ratio: 21.6% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 18.2 years
male: 18 years
female: 18.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.72% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 38.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 11.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 44% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LUANDA (capital) 5.506 million; Huambo 1.269 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.4 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 477 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 76.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 80.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 72.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56 years male: 54.8 years
female: 57.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 17.7% (2008/09)
Health expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 75.4% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 49% of population

unimproved:
urban: 24.6% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 51% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 88.6% of population
rural: 22.5% of population
total: 51.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 11.4% of population
rural: 77.5% of population
total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.17% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 315,400 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 11,900 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.5% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 15.6% (2007)
Education expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 10 years male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title "ngola" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitution: previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010 (2016)
Legal system: civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); note - according to the 2010 constitution, ballots are cast for parties rather than candidates, and the leader of the winning party becomes president

election results: NA; as leader of the MPLA, Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS elected president following legislative elections on 31 August 2012, inaugurated on 26 September 2012 to serve the first of a possible two terms under the 2010 constitution
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 31 August 2012 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 71.8%, UNITA 18.7%, CASA-CE 6.0%, PRS 1.7%, FNLA 1.1%, other 0.7%; seats by party - MPLA 175, UNITA 32, CASA-CE 8, PRS 3, FNLA 2
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms

subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU] National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - there are two factions of the party; one is led by Lucas NGONDA; the other is led by Ngola KABANGU National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party) Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975) Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Angolan Revolutionary Movement or ARM Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO] note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese soccer team in 2010
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow
National anthem: name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)
lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO

note: adopted 1975
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Agostinho Tavares da Silva NETO (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Helen Meagher LA LIME (15 May 2014)
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] 946440977
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000
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 Economy
Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit lines from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them. The global recession that started in 2008 stalled economic growth. In particular, lower prices for oil and diamonds during the global recession slowed GDP growth to 2.4% in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell in 2008 and 2009. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014. Falling oil prices and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects for 2015. Angola has responded by reducing government subsidies and by proposing import quotas and a more restrictive licensing regime. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $187.3 billion (2016 est.) $187.3 billion (2015 est.) $181.8 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $91.94 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0% (2016 est.) 3% (2015 est.) 4.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,800 (2016 est.) $7,000 (2015 est.) $7,000 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 4.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 0.6% of GDP (2015 est.) 12.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 72.5%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 35.3%
imports of goods and services: -36.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 72.5%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 35.3%
imports of goods and services: -36.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Industrial production growth rate: 0.9% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 10.85 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 85% industry and
services: 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 40.5% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.6%
highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
Budget: revenues: $27.27 billion
expenditures: $33.5 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 29.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 57.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 57.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 26.9% (2016 est.) 10.3% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$4.929 billion (2016 est.) -$8.748 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $30.04 billion (2016 est.) $35.55 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners: China 43.8%, India 9.6%, US 7.7%, Spain 6.2%, South Africa 4.8%, France 4.4% (2015)
Imports: $19.67 billion (2016 est.) $21.15 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners: China 22.1%, Portugal 13.8%, South Korea 11%, US 6.9%, South Africa 5%, UK 4.1%, France 4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $20.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $24.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $37.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $33.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $13.01 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $10.57 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $22.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $22.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rates: kwanza (AOA) per US dollar - 172 (2016 est.) 120.061 (2015 est.) 120.061 (2014 est.) 98.303 (2013 est.) 95.47 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 8.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.7 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 50.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 49.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 1.842 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1.745 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 8.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 46,050 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 132,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 33,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 97,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 731 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 231 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 500 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 308 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 33 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 13.885 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 71 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line t

domestic: only about one fixed line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 71 telephones per 100 persons in 2015

international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2015)
Broadcast media: state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state- (2008)
Internet country code: .ao
Internet users: total: 2.434 million percent of population: 12.4% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 176 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 31
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 145
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 43 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 352 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1,065 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2013)
Railways: total 2,852 km

narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
Waterways: 1,300 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 7

by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)

registered in other countries: 17 (Bahamas 6, Curacao 2, Cyprus 1, Liberia 1, Malta 7) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo
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 Military
Military branches: Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2013)
Military expenditures: 3.63% of GDP (2012) 3.5% of GDP (2011) 3.63% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 12,944 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2015)
Illicit drugs: used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa
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